Liquid Sand Hot Tub- Fluidized air bed

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Summary: Fluidized beds are used in industry for various reasons. They also happen to be really cool to play with and swim in. I made a liquid sand hot tub by adding air in just the right way.

I make videos like this once a month all year long while supplies last:
Tags:  casper  nasa  vsauce  liquid  sand  hot  tub-  fluidized  air  bed 

Number of Views: 3,434,355
Number of Likes: 122,937
Category: Technology
Caption: I'm sitting in a hot tub filled to the . brim with solid sand this is one of the . coolest things ever if you take a tub of . sand like this and then add air in just. the right way it basically becomes a . liquefied soup. [music]. [music]. [music]. the science this is known as a fluidized . bed it's used in industrial applications . such as powder coat painting or in grain . silos to make sure that the grain flows . smoothly to the outlet with air on the . top surface is eerily frictionless it's . like an air hockey table and then when . you cut off the air it breezes . everything exactly where it's at so . [music]. [applause]. [music]. today i'm going to show you how to make . a simple version like this yourself and . then because i became curious what it . would feel like to be fully immersed in . something like this . we made a hot tub sized version as you . can see from the sixty-year-old video . from the royal institute of science this . demo isn't exactly new i've wanted to . build one for a long time but you can . find literally no information online on . how to make one like that so i started . combing through a bunch of patent . drawings for massive industrial sized . fluid beds and i noticed that instead of . one big inlet they all had a bunch of . small holes to deliver the air so . starting with that in mind it still took . us 25 failed versions before we arrived . at this design as you can see it's just . a bunch of half-inch pvc pipes arranged . sort of in a ladder but the key is to . drill to 1 millimeter holes 90 degrees . apart from each other and then do a . bunch of those spaced to 25 millimeters . apart then you glue all the pipes . together and just make sure you orient . the holes down so that will keep the . sand from getting in and then you just . seal off the container with some hot . glue and then fill your container with . either fine sand or we found glass beads . worked really well and you can power . with a small air compressor like this or . you could just rent a large nitrogen . container like this for about 30 bucks . and i'll give . ten minutes of run time as usual i will . put a link to all of the parts i used . the build in the video description so . everybody can had an old broken spa on . his backyard which we decided to put to . good use. [music]. it just stops and you're like locked in . play it's like a weighted blanket on . every surface of your body . [music]. now that it was tested and ready in my . ongoing quest to be the favorite uncle i . decided to surprise my nephews with it . [music]. but before we get to swimming in sand . let's talk about the science behind a . fluidized bed we don't click away if you . think science is boring if you're new . here you should know that my approach to . science is similar to velociraptor . hunting patterns i try to bring people . in with a catchy thumbnail or a cool . thing to see and then when they least . expect it i may believe the analogy . breaks down a little at the end but if . you promise to hang with me for the next . two minutes i promise to try and walk . the delicate line between trying to make . things simple to understand without. oversimplifying or being condescending . food ization is just when you have . enough upward air so that the force of . the air pushing on each grain of sand is . equal to the downward force of gravity . or weight and when that happens on any . individual grain of sand it hovers in . equilibrium like fists you can think of . forces acting on an object like a tug of . war if an object is in equilibrium that . means there's a tie and it doesn't . accelerate in either direction just like . in a real tug of war if the sides are . even however if you add stone cold steve . austin to this side that will make it . totally unbalanced and will start to . move this way which is actually what . happens if you accidentally turn the air . up too high as a fluid ization occurs in . that sweet spot where the sand particles . hover in equilibrium which makes them . easy to move around this is also the . reason sometimes you'll see pools pumped . with air to cushion the landing for the . divers now you notice that some stuff . floats in the sand and other stuff sinks . this has to do with the buoyancy force . which is a function of the density of . the surrounding fluid and the volume of . the object itself whatever an object . exists in a pressure gradient there are . forces from pressure pushing in on all . sides but they push a little bit harder . a deeper that you are which is why it . hurts more to be the bottom guy in a dog . pile or it hurts your ears more the . deeper you dive in the pool this makes . sense because the deeper you dive the . more water there is above you pushing . down and if you add up the size and . direction of all those arrows a bunch of . stuff cancels out and you're left with . one net force pointing outwards that is . the buoyancy force and if your buoyancy . force happens to be greater than your . force from gravity you float and if your . buoyancy force happens to be less than . the force from gravity you sink now we . usually think of buoyancy with water but . you can think of things like helium . balloons being buoyant. our atmosphere so here's a trick . question which of these has a higher . buoyancy force it's actually the rubber . ball point see force has nothing to do . with the density of the object just the . volume so since the rubber ball takes up . more space it has a higher buoyancy . force but you might object then why does . the rubber ball sink and the balloon . floats remember it's a tug of war the . rubber ball sinks because the force from . gravity on the thick rubber skin and the . air inside is bigger than the buoyancy . force but for the balloon even though it . doesn't have as big of a buoyancy force . compared to the ball it still floats up . because that buoyancy force is bigger . than the weight arrow from the helium. and the thin rubber shell and the. heeling will keep rising like a ball . floating up from deep in a lake and then . it will eventually hang out where the. density the atmosphere is roughly equal . to the density of the helium of the . balloon because that's where the . tug-of-war becomes equal we made it . through now back to my nephews . [music]. [music]. christmas is coming and with the help of . casper who happened to support this . video i got you back and with the . exception of a bob ross chia pet what . could possibly be better than the gift . of a good night's rest with casper you . order online and then they'll ship it . right to your door for free and it shows . up in a box like this and then you open . it and it magically expands to actual . mattress size we totally love ours and . with over 20,000 reviews with an average . rating of 4. 8 stars on sites like amazon . there's a pretty good chance you'll love . it too. they're also affordable because you cut . out the sweaty price haggling commission . based middleman who works at a typical . mattress store and you could try it out . for a hundred days and if at the end of . that you're like me they'll come pick it . up for free you get all your money back . no questions asked so skip the crowded . mall this year and finish your christmas . shopping right now by going to casper . com slash mark over and using promo code . mark rover for $50 off any mattress . merry christmas and thanks for watching . [music]. .

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