7 Animals We Used to Think Were Extinct (But Aren’t!)

Species that no longer exist vastly outnumber those that currently populate the planet, but occasionally we rediscover a species we thought was extinct!
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https://www.tmsi.nus.edu.sg/files/05_Lim_Pg 49-56.pdf
https://www.gov.sg/~/sgpcmedia/media_releases/nparks/press_release/P-20170527-2/attachment/3 Factsheet B - Species recovery programme.pdf

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Caption: [music]. throughout our planets history billions . of species have gone extinct in fact . over 99% of the species that have ever . existed don't anymore . some of them disappeared long ago. leaving behind the occasional fossil to . study others went the way of the dodo . and were killed off either directly or . indirectly by humans but every once in a . while a creature we thought had kicked . the bucket is found still kickin here . are seven animals that turned out to not . be extinct after all one of the most . well known examples of this phenomenon . is the coelacanth a kind of simple fish . until the 1930s we'd only seen it in . fossils and the fossil record suggested . it died off not long before the. non-avian dinosaurs did over 65 million . years ago but then in 1938 a museum . curator named marjorie courtney latimer . discovered a live specimen someone had. fished off the coast of south africa. these days we know of two different . living species of coelacanth one in the . western indian ocean and the other in . waters near indonesia they've been so . hard to find because they tend to live . between about 150 and 250 meters down in . the oceans twilight zone which despite . the name is not a dimension not only of . sight and sound but of mind . it's just pretty dim down there on top . of that coelacanths also gather in caves . during the day only to leave at night to . feed but now that we found them we've . learned that they're kind of awesome the . coelacanth we found are nearly identical . to fossils hundreds of millions of years . old so they have a lot of anatomical . features we've never found in modern. animals for example they have a hinge . inside their skull that's unique among . all living vertebrates it allows the . back of their skulls to swing upwards so . they can basically open their mouths . super wide so basically they'd be . perfect dental patients if they weren't . fish i mean i don't know maybe they have . tooth problems selig ants are also the . only living fish to have seven lobed . fins and we only know of one other . living fish with lobed fins at all the . lungfish four of the coelacanth spins . are paired up and they move similarly to . how land-based. animals might move their legs because of . this scientists used to think that the . coelacanth could be the so-called . missing link between sea and land annum . but genetic sequencing has debunked that . the role most likely goes to the . lungfish which is the coelacanth closest . relative. but don't worry coelacanths we still . think you're special like the coelacanth . we used to think that the gan you or a . laotian rock rat was long gone but . instead of being found by fishermen this . animal was spotted at a meat market in . the late 1990s to scientists visiting. laotian meat markets independently. identified what appeared to be a new . species of rodent the animal which . looked like an adorable cross between a . squirrel and a large rat was a regular . on the market menu but it took nearly a . decade to confirm what it really was in . fact the first photographs of a living . laotian rock rat weren't captured until. 2006 based on initial dna testing . scientists first thought the creature. was part of a brand-new taxonomic family . one most closely related to guinea pigs . african mole rats and porcupines within . a year new analysis revealed that it was . actually the only living species from . its taxonomic family diet amaya day . which disappeared from the fossil record . around 11 million years ago today the . rodent is mostly found in central laos . but a smaller population has also been . found in vietnam both groups live in the . crevices of limestone towers in forests . so that might explain why they're hard . to find since they're so rare most of . what we know about the species comes . from analyzing bush meat samples and . talking to the locals who hunt them but. the scientists are pretty convinced that . the rodents are nocturnal and mostly . herbivores although they might . occasionally eat insects if you're . looking for an animal we thought was . extinct for a really long time you might . want to try out mono plaque offerings a . type of mollusk that we thought . disappeared around 400 million years ago . and then in 1952 ten live specimens were . collected from the sea floor near costa . rica over 3500 metres below the surface . after that researchers realized that . monoplacophorans had actually been found . before as early as 1869 but they were . all incorrectly identified as limpets a . kind of snail because of their similar . shape the day we found around 30 . distinct species and all of them fall . into the subcategory trib lydia as the . name suggests mono placa ferns have a . cap like shell with just one plate in . fact there show micro structure and . musculature are basically identical to . those found in fossils half a billion . years old but a lot about the . including how they grow and reproduce . and their relationship to other mollusks . is still a big mystery they're so simple . that researchers once believed they. could be the original mollusk from which . all others descended and because they . show signs of segmented organs they were . also seen as a potential missing link . between all mollusks and annelids or . segmented worms it probably aren't . either of those things though newer . research suggests that instead of being . the og mollusk they're actually a super . specialized branch on the mollusk family . tree which is only getting more . complicated as we learn more about it . mollusks might be simple but they are. not the simplest animal on our list that . honor goes to the neptune's cup sponge . which was first discovered around 1820 . off the coast of singapore and was very . quickly harvested to extinction or so we . thought these sponges could grow to over . a metre tall and wide and their cup like . shape was so convenient that people . actually use them as bathtubs for their . babies because they were so large they . were a valuable collector's item for . individuals and museums and we kept. harvesting them until they were almost. all gone last time anyone recorded a . living one was 1907 at least until . when scientists discovered two living . specimens in the waters off singapore's . st. john's island before then in the . 1990s we'd seen dead sponges wash up on. shore in australia so there was some . evidence they weren't extinct after all . but it took over a decade to find these . live ones the two sponges were young . only about 30 centimetres in diameter . which is nowhere near as large as they . could grow to be but they did teach us . that these sponges don't grow as slowly . as we used to think the two young . sponges grew several centimeters over . just a few months which is a lot . compared to other species of sponge . which only grow that much in a year as . of this may three more live sponges have . been discovered and to help conserve the . species they've been transplanted so . that they're close enough to each other . that they can reproduce it's safe to say . we will not be using them for baby baths . any time soon or ever let's not make . that mistake again. the first fossils of the my orc and . midwife toad were found in 1977 on the. island of majorca in the mediterranean . based on those fossils researchers. thought it had been extinct for a few . thousand years probably because romans . had introduced predatory snakes to the . island but only three years later we . found live ones. toad's are not especially talented at . helping others through labor or anything . the name comes from how the male's care . for fertilized eggs they carry a string . of seven to twelve of them wrapped. around their hind legs until they hatch . like a little tadpole fanny-pack these . tiny toads only grow to be four . centimeters long and they used to be . found all over my orca but invasive . species have pushed them into the . northern mountains where they live in . small streams carved into limestone . thankfully active breeding programs . across europe have existed since the mid . 1980s and the first toads bred in . captivity were reintroduced to the . island in . so far these conservation efforts have . been considered successful and the toads . were even reclassified in 2004 from. critically endangered to vulnerable so . things are looking up meanwhile just . east of australia you'll find the ten . kilometer long lord howe island formerly . the home of the creatively named lord. howe island stick insect it's also . nicknamed the land lobster or tree . lobster depending on who you ask . they are not as big as actual lobsters . but they can grow to be 15 centimetres . long or about as big as your hand which . if you ask me is bigger than any insect . really needs to be either way we thought . they'd been wiped out not long after . 1918 when a shipwreck on the tiny island . introduced a bunch of black rats that . would have considered stick insects are. really tasty snack but it turns out that . about 25 kilometers away on an even. smaller volcanic outcrop called ball's . pyramid a very tiny population survived . and we finally found them in 2001 . unfortunately ball's pyramid is not an . ideal environment for them these insects . used to live in forests and the hollows . of tree trunks but there aren't any . forests on the outcrop instead they hide . in holes full of plant debris and they . could only feed on one plant that grows . there the tea tree which can really be a . problematic eating strategy as pandas . have found out the hard way in 2003 two . insects were brought to the melbourne. zoo to begin a breeding program and so . far over 14,000 insects have been born . there this year a new female named . vanessa was brought from ball's pyramid . to the zoo for some much needed extra . genetic diversity and she's definitely . living her best life she currently has . her own . house but 14,000 insects does not mean . species is saved with fewer than 30 of . them in the wild . the lord howe island stick insect is a . strong candidate for the world's rarest . insect and even though balls pyramid is . nearly inhospitable for them it's not . safe to start reintroducing these . critters to lord howe island until . conservationists take care of the rat . problem because there are still plenty . of those guys running around so only . time will tell if they will ever be able . to return home finally for our last not . dead yet animal we have the ecuadorian . horned annul or the pinocchio lizard one . look at a male specimen and you will see . why he anoles were first discovered in . the 1950s but the few scientists could . find were all male so they couldn't tell . if the females also supported that. impressive nose and within a decade all . signs of them had vanished their . suspected extinction was probably caused. by deforestation since the anoles were . only found within about 250 square . kilometers of forest near the village of . minda but in 2005 a group of bird . watchers traveling through the area saw . a single strange lizard crawling along a . road caught it snapped some photos and. it was identified as the long-lost . ecuadorian horned and ole several years . later scientists captured specimens for . study they had to go at night because . these annals are super well camouflaged. - during the day and they like to hang . out high up in trees and creep around . very slowly but at night they change . color and become pale enough that . flashlights can pick them out amongst . the foliage so far we don't know why . they do this but it is convenient at . least even though we know they're alive . now researchers still don't know much. about these lizards they can actually . wiggle their proboscis but scientists. don't know exactly how they do it they . might have muscles and their snouts . which would make them different from . other lizards or maybe their bodies pump . fluid into and out of them if nothing . else researchers are pretty confident. that the proboscis is used for mating . displays as opposed to like fighting. other males that's partly because. they're super flimsy and would make for . terrible nose swords but also because of . directly observing males flourishing . them around before getting it on with . their partners we of course don't know . exactly how many ecuadorian horned . anoles there are but so few of them have . been spotted that they are listed as an . endangered species hopefully we can keep . them and. habitats around long enough to get some . answers no matter what the pressures on . these organisms that have pushed them so . far out of our grasp that we just . thought that they were gone it's always . an exciting moment for science when a . species seems to come back from the dead . some of them act like little time . capsules from earth's past and all of. them help us better understand the . family tree of life and hopefully we . will be able to keep them alive and well . for years to come thanks for watching . this episode of scishow if you love . learning about what life used to be like . on earth including about some animals . that did go extinct you could check out . our new sister show eons over at . youtube. com slash yawns it's so good i'm . loving doing it i just descript so thank . you to all the writing staff there it's . been such a wonderful journey into the . marvelous and humongous history of life . on earth . 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