SHOCKING Science with a Leyden Jar

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Today, we find out how to make a homemade Leyden Jar and what happens when you touch it!
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Hey guys welcome back and thanks for . joining us today on the king of random . in the history of inventions one of the . greatest of all mankind is the ability . to harness and control electricity some . of the old experiments that taught us . how electricity works are really . incredible in 1745 an early version of a . capacitor was invented by evald g von . kleist when he accidentally gave an . electric charge to a medicine bottle a . year later a man named peter van . michigan brooke came up with the same . invention while living in a city called . leyden his version of the invention . became a lot more popular and was named . after the city and is now called a . leyden jar at its most basic a leyden . jar is an insulated container with an . inside and outside holding opposite. charges when something bridges a . connection between the two the charges . equalized and it creates an electric . shock the purpose of today's video is to . learn how to build our own leyden jar . charge it up using electricity and then . discharge it to get that electric shock . the materials we need for this build are . pretty simple we need a plastic bottle . some aluminum foil a nail and some tape . to build up our static charge we're also . going to want some paper towels and a . length of pvc pipe this one's about . three feet long the exact length isn't . important we've gathered up all of our . supplies now let's get started you can . use most any type of plastic bottle for . this experiment i prefer the type that . has straight walls because we're going . to be wrapping aluminum foil around the . bottle and it's easier to wrap evenly . with straight walls than if it has a lot. of curves in it first empty your bottle . [music]. next let's remove the label from the . bottle it might work just as well with . it still on but i think it gives it a . cleaner look if we take it off . [music]. next let's tear off a piece of aluminum . foil approximately the same length as . the straight portion of our bottle let's . see if some of the glue residue on the . bottle will stick to the foil oh it does . that's brilliant. if your bottle doesn't have sticky . residue you can roll it up just the same . way it doesn't need to be stuck to it . like that we have a little bit extra . foil i'm just gonna trim it off with our . foil wrapped around our bottle let's. secure it in place with a couple of . pieces of tape there you have it we now . have a nice conductive coating on the . outside of our insulated bottle fill . your bottle almost all the way with . water leaving a gap at the top of about . an inch or two 100% pure water actually . won't conduct electricity but most tap. water has enough minerals and impurities . in it that it will but just to be sure . let's add a pinch of salt to make sure . that our water conducts electricity very . easily it should only take a pinch you . really don't need much there you go with . the salt mix it into the water we now . have a very conductive liquid inside the . bottle now the last step in building our . leyden jar is to drive our nail down. through the center of the bottle cap so . that a portion of the nail is sticking . up above the bottle but some of it is . also sticking down into the salt water . you can see that the bottom of the nail . is submerged in our salt water this will . allow a good electric current to flow . from the nail to the water and just like . that your leyden jar is built this is . now a device that for some time can hold . an electric charge unless something . conductive connects the nail to the foil. with our leyden jar complete it's time . to charge it up using static electricity . a very easy and consistent way to build . a static electric charge is using paper . towel and pvc before we start using our . pvc let's clean it off using some high . grit sandpaper to be sure that it's free . of any oils or dirts or residue . you can see that the sandpaper is so . fine that it doesn't even actually take . off any of the printing on the pipe but . it is removing some extra residue now . take a piece of paper towel and run it . along the length of the pvc pipe quickly . this will help build up a static . electricity charge i don't know if you . can hear that but it's building up a . charge fast all right with a static . charge built up in our pvc it's time to . transfer it into our leyden jar we'll do . this by just passing the pvc pipe very . close to the nail it sounds like if you . rub the balloon on your hair or if . you've ever had one of those old see our . tv screens right when you turn it off . makes that crackling noise i've now . charged up the pvc and put that . electricity into our leyden jar five or . six times now so i think it's time for a . test to see if it will discharge the . nitrile gloves are gonna be too much of. an insulator so i'm gonna take them off . try grabbing the foil and then touching . nail to see if i get a shock oh i got a . shock just from the foil that's not how . it's normally supposed to go but it's . probably good side . we'll find out i know that was a little . bit a little bit of a shock and i jumped . too hard just because i was nervous . about whether or not it was powerful i . think it was probably not a good idea to . keep the pvc pipe so close to the bottle . it might have still had some. interference with the electric fields . and it also is possible that i had just . inadvertently built up an electric. charge in the foil itself and then when . i first touched that it discharged a . little bit so let's try this again . [music]. all right and it shocked me again wonder . what's going on here. well i'll still try touching the nail . [music]. yeah it still got me again it is working . to some extent i'm able to hold the foil . and i get a zap when i touch the nail . but it's also zapping me a little bit . when i grab the foil in the first place. so i'm going to try taking the foil down . by a button it's just in case the static . charge from the pvc is also jumping onto . the foil as i pass it next to the nail . i'm gonna try and move it away from the . nail a little bit okay let's try . charging this up again there's five . charges and this time when i grab the . foil it's not doing anything to me let's . see what happens when i touch the nail . oh that was definitely a bigger shock . all right . i think what's been happening is the. foil itself has been building up . something of a charge and since i'm . standing on the ground when i touch the . foil that charge runs through me but . when i hold the foil every time as i . charge it it keeps the same charge as me. which is a greater difference from the . charge inside the water that makes it so . when i touch the nail it give us a . bigger shock last time i charged it five . times this time i'm charging it ten all . right here goes nothing . let's see what it does to me . [music]. girl oh boy okay . so last time i felt in my arm that time . i felt it in my whole body like it went . like i felt it in my other arm and down . through my legs and just still there's . big ole jump alright that's pretty fun . it doesn't actually hurt it's just like . a pulse that goes through you alright . well that's working pretty well . something else i want to try though i'm . gonna turn down the lights and see if we . can actually watch the electric spark. jump oh i saw it i hope it was on camera . that was another good joel tiny little . spark it didn't have a big gap to jump . over but it was there something i'm . going to try to see if we can make it a . little visible i'm going to hold another . piece of metal before i touch it instead . of touching you directly with my fingers . it might jump the gap a little bit . better that way . [music]. good well it didn't really jump the gap . i still had to touch the foil to the . nail i think but i still did see a spark. and when i touch it with my finger it . looked like a yellow spark touching with . the foil looked like a blue spark no . idea what the difference is there we go . we've charged up our leyden jar using. some pvc and paper towel but i want to . try and take it to the next level . in a previous video we shattered a . plasma globe while it was running now . we're going to try using this plasma. globe to see if we can charge up the . leyden jar with it when this is turned . on if a piece of metal gets near the . bulb you can still see that purple spark . showing up i'm gonna try touching it . with my glove oh it's like doing pretty . much nothing well it's still getting the . spark though ooh it's starting to heat . up just took my finger let's see if it . it doesn't really give you a shock it . gets warm but it doesn't like just this. is a lot more of a feeling of . electricity well let's see what happens . if we touch this to our leyden jar . well it's sparking kind of like when i . touch my finger to it i don't know if . that's building up the charge or not. let's just let it go for a second and . see what happens. oh it smells like ozone wow that's kind . of powerful well that seems like plenty . of charging to me see if it did anything. no shock from touching the foil nothing . nothing whatsoever i thought it would do . something oh well . well whatever electricity is coming out . of that it doesn't seem to charge our . leyden jar so i think the best way to do . it is just stick with the pvc i was kind . of hoping you would be like a . quick-acting charge just this is full oh . well whoa my favorite thing to do is you . get this bottle charge it up pretty well . about 10 passes then you get a group of . people have one person hold the bottle . on the aluminum foil and have everyone . hold hands in a circle then you have the . last person in the circle touch the nail . and everyone in the circle will feel the . jolt run through them it's pretty . entertaining there you have it now you . know how to build yourself a leyden jar . which is an early type of capacitor a . capacitor is similar to a battery except. that instead of discharging its . electricity slowly it dumps all of it at . once this leyden jar capacitor is made . just by using a plastic bottle some . aluminum foil held on with tape and a . nail it's then filled with water with a . little bit of salt added for . conductivity and charged up using the . static electricity generated with pvc . and a paper towel this is something you . can easily build an afternoon and have . fun experimenting with or you can just . use it to prank people and tell them to . touch it and see if you can get them to . do that without knowing what's gonna . happen they'll be in for a surprise . we tried charging up our leyden jar. using our broken plasma globe because it . does discharge electricity in some form. but apparently it's not anything that . will charge this out if you know of a . good experiment that you can do with a . leyden jar let us know down in the . comments and we might try it out thanks . for joining us for this project today . and we look forward to the next one talk . to you then . this might be a very dumb experiment . i've charged it a little bit just in . three passes and you see what happens if . i lick the mail it's a tiny little zap . on the surface of my tongue didn't do . much i don't really want to do much more . than that it sounds painful hey guys i . hope you're having a great day you are . awesome you are appreciated and i know . everyone over here on my team is really . grateful for you thanks so much for . choosing to watch and support our videos . we'll see you in the next one . [music]. .

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