Is Ant-Man Secretly the Most Powerful Avenger?

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When you think of powerful Avengers, you probably think of Hulk or Thor, but should we be considering Ant-Man too? Kyle has the quantum realm science on this week's Because Science!
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His ant-man secretly the most powerful . avenger of all marvel's avengers which . one do you think is the most powerful . could it be doctor strange with his . control over magic and time could it be . the incredible hulk with his incredible . resilience and strength or could it be . an avenger that you may not expect i . think that it could in fact be ant-man . and he is critically important to the . future of the mcu i think that ant-man . is the most powerful avenger because . quantum mechanics is powerfully weird . it's right there ant-man signature . ability is that he can make himself . small really really small he can go so. small in fact that scott lang can enter . the so-called quantum realm the scale of . the universe where quantum mechanical . effects take over from classical ones in . ant-man and the wasp the quantum realm . plays a major role and the movies main . villain ghost looks as though she's . imbued with some weird quantum powers. but where do these effects come from and . how would it make ant-man the most . powerful avenger i think that ant-man's . potential has everything to do with the . concept of worldlines but first as you . may know everything that is exists in . both space and time and space-time has . four dimensions but i think we often . forget about that fourth one if you are . just a dot you would exist in zero . dimensions if you moved any direction . from that point you will have explored . one dimension move another direction yet . again and you will have two dimensions . at your disposal now if you move in the . last spatial direction that you can in . this case with you and me back and forth . three dimensionality is yours but that . fourth dimension that i think we often . forget about isn't spatial its temporal . its time . time as you move through space you also . move through time and if you graph that . temporal dimension along with the . spatial dimensions except we are . suppressing one here so it looks more . intelligible you can graph your very own . world line which describes your entire . history in the universe that you exist . in every single point that makes up this . line is a time and a place of something . happening to you at the very beginning . is where and when you were born and at . the very end is exactly where and when . you returned your energy to the universe . it sounds intuitive but let's keep going . remember that this isn't describing your . physical path through space and three . dimensions it's also adding that time. dimension so if you are simply standing . still in space your world line would be . a straight line either that or you are . moving with a constant velocity and if . you increased your speed the line would . start to curve away from the time axis . and if you decreased your speed from . there it would curve towards it you are . covering more or less distance over time . another example of how this can get a . little weird is thinking of earth's . orbit through space as we see it in our . textbooks and animations it looks like. the earth is basically just orbiting in . two dimensions but if you add that time . dimension again and graph earth's world . line it is not like a flat disk in fact . it is an actual helix through space time . cool right but of course neither you nor . the earth are single point particles . you're a large collection of atoms. collectively moving through space-time . so your world lines would look a lot. bigger more like world volumes or world . tubes but i think you get the picture . ant-man okay to really wrap your head . around world lines though i think we . need to add one more layer of complexity . there being such as we there is a hard . speed limit in the universe and that is . the speed of light . in our space-time graph here then there . should be some angle some distance . covered per time that would signify the . speed of light and our speed limit . determine that angle in your own graph. many physicists put it at 45 degrees. draw it in three dimensions and then you . have what scientists call a light cone a . cone that signifies all the possible . world lines that could come in and out . of some event all the possible ways that . light and beings like you could interact . with a certain event at a certain time . if you were paying the universal speed . limit now from everything we just talked . about you may think that there is only . one possible course one possible history . for particles through the universe but . because of the weirdness of quantum . mechanics we just know that's not true . the really mind-blowing thing about . quantum mechanics is that it forces us . to come to terms with the fact that our . world is not how it appears to us and if . you think that you understand quantum . mechanics you don't let me ask you a . seemingly simple question how do you . think a mirror works because of everyday . experience i think the common answer . would be that a photon or ray of light . comes in at a straight line bounces off. of a mirror at the same angle it came in . it and then reaches the detector that is . your eye but how could it be that simple . how does the photon know to bounce off . at that angle and if light can act as . both a particle and a wave how does a . straight line path make any real sense. well it doesn't and understanding why is . how american physicist and smart boy . richard feynman changed theoretical . physics and quantum mechanics forever . fineman figured that because of the . random probabilistic nature of quantum. mechanics there's no real reason why a . photon of light couldn't take every . single possible path that it could to . your eye an infinite number of paths and . this would include even really weird . paths paths that would take the photon. to the end of the universe and back . before reaching your eye . have that took the photon backwards in. time before it got to you not that far . back to sort this situation out richard . fineman assigned values to all of the . possible paths that look like little . arrows like little hands on a clock . which would show the orientation or the . phase that the light was in when it got . to the detector dependent on how long it . took the light to get there when finding . then summed all these possible phases he . found that the phase of light that was . most likely to be detected by your eye . was not only the phase that took the. least amount of time to get to your eye . it was the phase that summed best with . all the other possible paths to your eye . even though there are an infinite number . of weird wacky paths to your eye most of . them are too weird and they cancel each . other out and when you do that in our . example as we have drawn it you get a . phase it looks to be somewhere between c . and d which gives us our original common . sense everyday experience answer the . angle of incidence equals the angle of . reflection so this really happens when . light bounces off of a mirror it takes . every possible path in the universe to . get to your eye an infinite number but . once it gets to your eye it acts as . though only one history for one world. line was important weird this is the way . the fabric of the universe was actually . woven as physicists started to discover . but if this view of the world was true . why don't we ever behave weirdly why . don't we ever take infinite paths . you space well simply put we're too big . if a particles wavelength is equivalent . to some constant planck's constant . divided by its momentum for anything . that's human sized the wavelength is . just gonna be way too small to measure . for example if you were moving at just . one meter per second through space your . wavelength would be trillions of . trillions of trillions times shorter . than visible lights think of our bodies . like fineman's mirror we are trillions . and trillions of particles stuck . together and they all have their own . possible paths and world lines and. orientations through space and so many. of them conflict that what emerges is a . apparently single pathway and single . history through space-time but we know . that this is an illusion it has to be . it's an illusion that we have evolved . and accepted come on i was trying to . sound cool if ant-man could wield . quantum mechanical powers he could break . this illusion of reality and that would . make him the most powerful avenger of . all yes including you thor sorry . aim it for the head now huh cool. right as ant-man starts to shrink the . weirdness starts when he got to the size. of a bullet . if ant-man ran at you and hit you with a . human's mass he hit you with nearly half . a billion pascal's of pressure water jet . cutter pressure and go right through you . not exactly pg-13 oh when ant-man got . down to the size of an actual ant if he . still had human mass he would be as . dense as a white dwarf star and that . would make him nearly invulnerable to . all physical damage and he would sink . through any surface on earth unless he . was standing on a building that was also . shrunk but that would be impossible to . move around as a little tiny suitcase . because it would also sink to the center . of the it's a little a man's a little . inconsistent with that but when ant-man . finally went subatomic where quantum . effects dominate that's . his powers would truly shine if scott . lang really did have the powers of the . quantum he would be able to break open . our illusion of reality. remember fineman's infinite quantum. paths well instead of being confined to . a single world line maybe ant-man if he . had the powers of the quantum could pick . and choose where and when he wanted to . exist among an infinite number of world . lines instead of being confined to just . one like fineman's mirror or our bodies . are he could pick and choose where and . when he wanted to exist hopping into and . out of reality like ghosts i think . that's what she's doing and he could . travel through our universe in ways that . we are not allowed unlike a thoughtless . quantum particle and man with agency . picking and choosing among an infinite . number of quantum paths could affect his . past and his future and our universe in . ways that could break open or save our . reality this is potentially time travel . this is potentially alternate universes . this is potentially a way to save half . of the universe or what happened to it . so how could ant-man possibly be the . most powerful avenger well if he had . control over the absolute weirdness that . is quantum mechanics he would be able to . do things that would be simply . impossible in our reality as we . understand it space-time would be his . playground this is way more powerful . than any shield or any axe and could be . the key into forcing some different . future or different past into being one . that didn't include i don't know a buff . premise gusting half of the universe's . heroes if that's not power i don't know . what is because science oh okay . [music]. ant-man does have a mass problem though. i mean for this episode i talked to the . guy who consulted on the film and he's . very intelligent and they don't address . the mass problem like if ant-man got 60 . feet tall his density would go down to. just about twice that of air so you'd be . able to move him around like a parade . float and he wouldn't be able to . interact with stuff in the same way or . like lift up a giant boat or anything . like that he just kind of be like a big . rose mary's day parade that's rose day . parade rose parade no macy's day parade . he'd be like one of them floats is that . right. macy's day macy's what is it macy's . thanksgiving parade no that doesn't . sound right he'd be light is what i'm . getting in be like a stay puft . marshmallow man but lighter whoa . that's pillsbury nevermind thank you so . much for watching jordan and a big . thanks to quantum theoretical physicists . perros mitchell aqus who helped me a lot . with this episode thank you for . consulting on ant-man and also answering . all my emails if you want more of me you . can like and subscribe wherever you are. if you're on facebook like it if you're . on youtube hit that notification bell . fam and also subscribe and if you want . to follow me or because science on . social media you can go here and if you . want another show you can check out . natural selection but you can only get . it by going to project alpha at project . alpha comm where if you sign up for a . free trial you can get this show two . days earlier than anyone else lucky you . and it's also the only way that you can . vote on this very silly debate show that . i'm doing with my friend dan casey . thanks for watching i already said it . [music]. .
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